Here is the setext version of this appendix.

Appendix C. Conjugational Endings and Irregular Forms

Contents:

Revision 1.17 of this page, last updated on 2003/02/17.
(C)opyright 1994-2003 Mark H. Nodine

C.1. Introduction

This appendix gives the endings for the conjugations of regular verbs, including all those that are referenced in the lexicons. It also gives the full conjugations for irregular verbs. For those sets of endings that are also complete verbs in their own rights, they appear in Section C.2. Most of this information comes from [Williams80] and [Klingebiel94].

For an alphabetical listing of endings and irregular verb forms, see Appendix F.

C.2. Endings for Verbs

C.2.1. The Normal Endings

Some verbs with normal endings have two stems listed, one for monosyllabic endings (designated "&1") and one for polysyllabic endings (designated "&2+"). All endings are monosyllabic except those explicitly indicated below.

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
a(f)
i
ith,iff,a [A]
wn,%wn [B]
wch,%wch [B]
an(t) [2]
impers. ir,%ir [B]
[A]
"-iff" and "-ith" are dialectic.
"-a" is pretty much always acceptable, though there may be preferred forms which are noted in the lexicons.
[B]
The "%" at the beginning of an ending means that these endings place a diaeresis above the preceding vowel. This diaeresis occurs if the verb stem ends with an "e".
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
wn,%wn [A]
it,%it [A]
ai
em [1]
ech
en(t) [2]
impers. id,%id [A]
[A]
The "%" at the beginning of an ending means that these endings place a diaeresis above the preceding vowel. This diaeresis occurs if the verb stem ends with an "e".
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
ais,es [A]
aist,est [A]
odd
((a)s)om [1]
((a)s)och
((a)s)an(t) [2]
impers. wyd
[A]
"-es" and "-est" are colloquial.

Note
The endings "asom", "asoch", and "asan(t)" are polysyllabic.
Note
The endings "som", "soch", and "san(t)" are only used with the verb "gweld" and its compounds.
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
aswn
asit
asai
asem [1]
asech
asen(t) [2]
impers. asid,esid
Note
All these endings are polysyllabic.
Note
All these endings omit the "a" when used with the verb "gweld" and its compounds.
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
wy(f)
ych
o
om [1]
och
on(t) [2]
impers. er
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
wn,%wn [A]
it,%it [A]
ai
em [1]
ech
en(t) [2]
impers. id,%id [A]
[A]
The "%" at the beginning of an ending means that these endings place a diaeresis above the preceding vowel. This diaeresis occurs if the verb stem ends with an "e".
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
a [A]
ed
wn,%wn [B]
wch,%wch [B]
en(t) [2]
impers. er
[A]
"-a" is correct except where noted in the lexicons.
[B]
The "%" at the beginning of an ending means that these endings place a diaeresis above the preceding vowel. This diaeresis occurs if the verb stem ends with an "e".
adwy ~able
edig having been ~ed
Note
Both of these endings are polysyllabic.

C.2.2. The Contracted Endings

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
(f)
i
-
wn
wch
+n(t) [2]
impers. ir
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
wn
it
+i
em [1]
ech
en(t) [2]
impers. id
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
is
ist
odd,es
esom [1]
esoch
esan(t) [2]
impers. wyd,ed
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
eswn
esit
esai
esem [1]
esech
esen(t) [2]
impers. esid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
wy(f)
ech
-
+m [1]
och
+n(t) [2]
impers. er
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
wn
it
+i
em [1]
ech
en(t) [2]
impers. id
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
-
ed
wn
wch
en(t) [2]
impers. er
adwy ~able
edig having been ~ed

C.2.3. The "-hau" Endings

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
ha(f)
hei
ha
hawn
hewch
ha+n(t) [2]
impers. heir
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
hawn
hait
ha+i
haem [1]
haech
haen(t) [2]
impers. heid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
heais
heaist
haodd
hasom [1]
hasoch
hasan(t) [2]
impers. hawyd
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
haswn
hasit
hasai
hasem [1]
hasech
hasen(t) [2]
impers. hasid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
hawy(f)
heych
hao
haom [1]
haoch
haon(t) [2]
impers. haer
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
hawn
hait
ha+i
haem [1]
haech
haen(t) [2]
impers. heid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
ha
haed
hawn
hewch
haen(t) [2]
impers. haer
haol ~able

C.2.4. The "-a/u" Endings

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
a+(f)
e/i
a/
a/wn
e/wch
a+n(t) [2]
impers. e/ir
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
a/wn
a/it
a+i
a/em [1]
a/ech
a/en(t) [2]
impers. e/id
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
eais
eaist
aodd
asom [1]
asoch
asan(t) [2]
impers. a/wyd
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
aswn
asit
asai
asem [1]
asech
asen(t) [2]
impers. asid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
awy(f)
eych
ao
aom [1]
aoch
aon(t) [2]
impers. aer
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
a/wn
a/it
a+i
a/em [1]
a/ech
a/en(t) [2]
impers. e/id
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
a/
a/ed
a/wn
e/wch
a/en(t) [2]
impers. a/er
a/ol ~able

C.2.5. The "-bod" and "-fod" Endings

The only difference between the "-bod" and the "-fod" endings is that the latter begin with an "f" instead of a "b". Only the "-bod" forms are given.

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
bydda(f)
byddi
bydd
byddwn
byddwch
byddan(t) [2]
impers. byddir
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
byddwn
byddit
byddai
byddem [1]
byddech
bydden(t) [2]
impers. byddid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
bu+m
buost
bu
buom [1]
buoch
buan(t) [2]
impers. buwyd
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
buaswn
buasit
buasai
buasem [1]
buasech
buasen(t) [2]
impers. buasid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
byddwy(f)
byddych
byddo
byddom [1]
byddoch
byddon(t) [2]
impers. bydder
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
byddwn
byddit
byddai
byddem [1]
byddech
bydden(t) [2]
impers. byddid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
bydd
bydded
byddwn
byddwch
bydden(t) [2]
impers. bydder

C.2.6. The "mynd" Endings (and the Verb "mynd")

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
a(f)
ei
a+,aiff,eith [A]
awn
ewch
a+n(t) [2]
impers. eir
[A]
"Aiff" and "eith" are colloquial forms.
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
awn
ait
a+i
aem [1]
aech
aen(t) [2]
impers. eid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
euthum,es [A]
aethost,est [A]
aeth
aethom [1]
aethoch
aethan(t) [2]
impers. ae(thpwy)d
[A]
"Es" and "est" are colloquial forms.
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
aethwn,elswn
aethit,elsit
aethai,elsai
aethem,elsem [1]
aethech,elsech
aethen(t),elsen(t) [2]
impers. aethid,elsid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
elwy(f)
elych
e+l,elo
elom [1]
eloch
elon(t) [2]
impers. eler
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
elwn
elit
elai
elem [1]
elech
elen(t) [2]
impers. elid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
dos,cer(a),cere; -a [A]
aed,eled
awn
cerwch,ewch; -ewch [B]
aen(t),elen(t) [2]
impers. aer,eler
[A]
"Cer", "cera", and "cere" are from the S. Wales dialect. When "mynd" is used as a set of endings, "-a" is correct.
[B]
When "mynd" is used as a set of endings, "-ewch" is correct.

C.2.7. The "gwybod" Endings (and the Verb "gwybod")

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
gwn
gwyddost
gw+yr
gwyddom [1]
gwyddoch
gwyddan(t) [2]
impers. gwyddys,gwy+s
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
gwybydda(f)
gwybyddi
gwybydd
gwybyddwn
gwybyddwch
gwybyddan(t) [2]
impers. gwybyddir
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
gwyddwn
gwyddit
gwyddai
gwyddem [1]
gwyddech
gwydden(t) [2]
impers. gwyddid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
gwybu+m
gwybuost
gwybu
gwybuom [1]
gwybuoch
gwyban(t),gwybon(t) [2]
impers. gwybuwyd
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
gwybuaswn
gwybuasit
gwybuasai
gwybuasem [1]
gwybuasech
gwybuasen(t) [2]
impers. gwybuasid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
gwypwy(f),gwybyddwy(f)
gwypych,gwybyddych
gwypo,gwybyddo
gwypom,gwybyddom [1]
gwypoch,gwybyddoch
gwypon(t),gwybyddon(t) [2]
impers. gwyper,gwybydder
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
gwypwn,gwybyddwn
gwypit,gwybyddit
gwypai,gwybyddai
gwypem,gwybyddem [1]
gwypech,gwybyddech
gwypen(t),gwybydden(t) [2]
impers. gwypid,gwybyddid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
gwybydd
gwyped,gwybydded
gwybyddwn
gwybyddwch
gwypen(t),gwybydden(t) [2]
impers. gwybydder

C.3. Irregular Verbs

C.3.1. The Verb "bod"

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
(yd)w(yf)
(yd)wyt
oes,mae,(yd)yw,ydy
ydym,y+m [1]
(yd)ych,(yd)ach
maen(t),(yd)yn(t) [2]
impers. [3]
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
bydda(f)
byddi
bydd
byddwn
byddwch
byddan(t) [2]
impers. byddir
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
oeddwn,o+n
oeddit
(yd)oedd
oeddem [1]
oeddech
oedden(t) [2]
impers. oeddid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
byddwn
byddit
byddai
byddem [1]
byddech
bydden(t) [2]
impers. byddid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
bu+m,bues,buais
buost,buest
bu(odd)
buom [1]
buoch
buon(t) [2]
impers. buwyd
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
b(u)aswn
b(u)asit
b(u)asai
b(u)asem [1]
b(u)asech
b(u)asen(t) [2]
impers. b(u)asid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
b(ydd)wy(f)
by(dde)ch
b(ydd)o
bo+m,byddom [1]
b(ydd)och
bo+n(t),byddon(t) [2]
impers. bydder
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
bawn,byddwn
bait,byddit
b(ydd)ai
baem,byddem [1]
baech,byddech
baen(t),bydden(t) [2]
impers. byddid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
bydd
bid,boed,bydded
byddwn
byddwch
bydden(t) [2]
impers. bydder

C.3.2. The Verb "adnabod" ("nabod")

Colloquially, any of the forms that begin "adn" can appear with the "ad" missing.

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
adw(a)en
adwaenost,adweini
adw(a)en,edwyn
adwaenon,adwaenwn
adwaenoch,adwaenwch
adwaenan(t) [2]
impers. adwaenir,adweinir
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
adnabydda(f)
adnabyddi
adnebydd
adnabyddwn
adnabyddwch
adnabyddan(t) [2]
impers. adnabyddir
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
adwaenwn
adwaenit
adwaenai
adwaenem [1]
adwaenech
adwaenen(t) [2]
impers. adwaenid,adweinid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
adnabu+m
adnabuost
adnabu
adnabuom [1]
adnabuoch
adnabuan(t),adnabuon(t) [2]
impers. adnabuwyd
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
adnabuaswn
adnabuasit
adnabuasai
adnabuasem [1]
adnabuasech
adnabuasen(t) [2]
impers. adnabuasid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
adnapwy(f),adnabyddwy(f)
adnepych,adnabyddych
adnapo,adnabyddo
adnapom,adnabyddom [1]
adnapoch,adnabyddoch
adnapon(t),adnabyddon(t) [2]
impers. adnaper,adnabydder
Singular Plural
1. adnapwn,adnabyddwn,
adwaenwn
adnapem,adnabyddem,
adwaenem [1]
2. adnepit,adnabyddit,
adwaenit
adnapech,adnabyddech,
adwaenech
3. adnapai,adnabyddai,
adwaenai
adnapen(t),adnabydden(t),
adwaenen(t) [2]
impers. adnapid,adnabyddid,adwaenid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
adnebydd
adnabydded
adnabyddwn
adnabyddwch
adnabydden(t) [2]
impers. adnabydder

C.3.3. The Verb "gwybod"

See Section C.2.7.

C.3.4. The Verb "dod"

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
deua(f),do(f)
deui,doi
daw,de+l
deuwn,down
de(u)wch,dowch
deuan(t),do+n(t) [2]
impers. deuir,doir
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
deuwn,down
deuit,doit
deuai,do+i
deuem,doem [1]
deuech,doech
deuen(t),doen(t) [2]
impers. deuid,doid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
deuthum,des
daethost,dest
daeth,doeth*
daethom [1]
daethoch
daethan(t),daethon(t) [2]
impers. daethpwyd,deuwyd,doed,dowd
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
daethwn
daethit
daethai
daethem [1]
daethech
daethen(t) [2]
impers. daethid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
delwy(f)
delych
de+l,delo
delom [1]
deloch
delon(t) [2]
impers. deler
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
delwn
delit
delai
delem [1]
delech
delen(t) [2]
impers. delid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
tyr(e)d,dere [A]
deued,doed,deled
deuwn,down
de(u)wch,dowch
deuen(t),doen(t),delen(t) [2]
impers. deuer,doer,deler
[A]
"Dere" is from the S. Wales dialect.

C.3.5. The Verb "mynd"

See Section C.2.6.

C.3.6. The Verb "cael"

Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
ca(f)
cei
caiff
cawn
cewch
ca+n(t) [2]
impers. cair,ceir
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
cawn
cait
ca+i
caem [1]
caech
caen(t) [2]
impers. caid,ceid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
c(ef)ais,c(ef)es
c(ef)aist,c(ef)est
ca(fo)dd,ca(fa)s
cawsom [1]
cawsoch
cawsan(t) [2]
impers. ca(e)d,cafwyd
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
cawswn
cawsit
cawsai
cawsem [1]
cawsech
cawsen(t) [2]
impers. cawsid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
caffwy(f)
ceffych
caffo
caffom [1]
caffoch
caffon(t) [2]
impers. caffer
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
ca(ff)wn
ca(ff)it
caffai,ca+i
ca(ff)em [1]
ca(ff)ech
ca(ff)en(t) [2]
impers. ceffid
Singular Plural
1.
2.
3.
[3]
[3]
ca(ff)ed
[3]
[3]
ca(ff)en(t) [2]
impers. [3]

C.4. Endings for Adjectives

The adjectival endings are as follows:

Equative
-ed
Comparative
-ach
Superlative
-a(f)

C.5. Endings for Prepositions

There are two conjugations of regular prepositions.

C.5.1. First Conjugation

Singular Plural
1. -a(f) -om [1]
2. -at -och
3.m.
3.f.
-o
-i
-ynt [2]

C.5.2. Second Conjugation

Singular Plural
1. -o(f) -om [1]
2. -ot -och
3.m.
3.f.
-ddo
-ddi
-ddynt [2]

C.6. Irregular Prepositions

C.6.1. Gan

Singular Plural
1. gen(nyf) gennym [1]
2. gennyt gennych
3.m.
3.f.
ganddo
ganddi
ganddynt [2]

C.6.2. I

Singular Plural
1. i(mi) in(ni)
2. i(ti) i(ch(w)i)
3.m.
3.f.
iddo
iddi
iddynt [2]

C.6.3. O

Singular Plural
1. ohono(f) ohonom [1]
2. ohonot ohonoch
3.m.
3.f.
ohono
ohoni
ohonynt [2]

C.6.4. Tros/Dros

Singular Plural
1. troso(f) trosom [1]
2. trosot trosoch
3.m.
3.f.
trosto
trosti
trostynt [2]

C.6.5. Trwy/Drwy

Singular Plural
1. trwo(f) trwom [1]
2. trwot trwoch
3.m.
3.f.
trwyddo
trwyddi
trwyddynt [2]

C.6.6. Wrth

Singular Plural
1. wrthy(f) wrthym [1]
2. wrthyt wrthych
3.m.
3.f.
wrtho
wrthi
wrthynt [2]

Footnotes C

[1]
Colloquially, the "m" in this ending is changed to "n".

[2]
The "t" is dropped if the pronoun is "nhw" (as opposed to the literary form "hwy").

[3]
This form does not exist.

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Mark.Nodine@mot.com -- Mark H Nodine,visitor
14 June 2003 at 23:33:43