Here is the setext version of this lesson.
Note: This lesson introduces the nasal mutation, which is presented in Appendix A. For the benefit of those who are using the ASCII version of the lessons and who do not have Appendix A in front of them, here's the summary of the nasal mutation:
| "cwm" (valley) becomes "nghwm"|
"Pen-y-bont" (a place) becomes "Mhen-y-Bont"
"ty+" (house) becomes "nhy+"
"gwraig" (wife) becomes "ngwraig"
"brawd" (brother) becomes "mrawd"
"drws" (door) becomes "nrws"
Back in Section 6.4, you learned how to create possessives where one noun possesses another. Now we'll take possessiveness to its logical extreme by teaching you how to say something is "my something". The Welsh word for "my" is fy. It comes before the noun. In spoken Welsh, the personal pronoun "i" is also tacked on after the noun. Thus, the overall pattern is
|fy x i||my x (I hope she doesn't see this.)|
Unfortunately, there's a little bit more to it than that, or I'd have presented this material back in about Lesson 4:
| fy nghar i|
yn 'y marn i
yn afal i
| my car (car = car)|
in my opinion (barn = opinion)
Actually, as long as we're learning the nasal mutation, we might as well learn the other two places it comes up.
| yn nhy+ fy mrawd|
ym marn yr athro
| in my brother's house|
in the teacher's opinion
There, now you have seen all there is to know about the nasal mutation. All you need now is mhractice.
The perfect tense is not a description of a situation that's guaranteed to make you nervous. It's a form of a verb indicating that an action has completed in the past. In English, we form the perfect tense by using the present tense of "have" as a helping verb:
|I have studied grammar for too many years.|
Welsh forms the perfect tense in exactly the say way as you learned to make the present tense in Section 3.2, except that the preposition "wedi" is substituted for the particle "yn".
|Rydw i'n astudio'r Gymraeg.||I am studying (study, do study) Welsh.|
|Rydw i wedi astudio'r Gymraeg.|| I have studied Welsh.|
(lit. "I am after studying Welsh").
Welsh, like Russian, has no verb "to have".  I guess they're very generous. Both Welsh and Russian express having something using the same periphrastic: saying that the something is with them. Here's how it looks in Welsh: 
|Mae llyfr gyda fi.|| I have a book. (lit. "there is a|
book with me")
|Oes arian gyda fe?||Does he have money?|
The word order can also be changed to put the thing being had last, but this rearrangement causes a soft mutation of the thing:
|Mae gyda fi lyfr.||I have a book.|
The rule here is that any noun phrase (any group of words you could replace with a pronoun) causes a soft mutation of the following word:
|Mae gyda'r dyn wrth y drws lyfr.||The man by the door has a book.|
since you can replace "'r dyn wrth y drws" with "fe":
|Mae gyda fe lyfr.||He has a book.|
Sometimes people fail to take the hint when you make suggestions, so you have to order them around. The way to do that is using imperatives. Welsh has imperatives for every person and number except first person singular (you can't boss yourself around). In this section, we will learn only the second person plural and formal. These imperatives are easy to recognize, because they end in "-wch".
There are, of course, irregular verbs:
| Come! (from "dod")|
Go! (from "mynd")
Let! (from "gadael")
You can say "let someone do something" by putting an "i" before the "someone" (which gets softly mutated -- see Section 5.5) and putting the "something" after the "someone" (the "something" also gets softly mutated -- see Section 7.3). Thus,
| Gadewch iddo fe fynd.|
Gadewch i ni ddechrau.
| Let him go.|
Let us begin.
We needed something else for this chapter. To get something else, all you need to do is put the word "arall" after the word you wanted something else of.
| Rhywbeth arall?|
Oes afal arall yma?
| Something else?|
Is there another apple here?
"Arall" can also be used as a pronoun:
|Oes arall yn y gegin?||Is there another (one) in the kitchen?|
The plural of "arall" is "eraill".
|Mae afalau eraill ar y coed.||There are other apples on the trees.|
1. Practice making sentences from the following patterns:
|Mae fy|| nghyfnither|
|i|| yng Nghaernarfon|
yng nghefn y ty+
yn nawns y dysgwyr
yn ngardd fy nghymydog drws nesa i
yn nhy+ fy mam i
yng Ngogledd Cymru
[A translation of this conversation can be found in a different file.]
anghyfforddus - (adj.) uncomfortable
annheg - (adj.) unfair
arall (eraill) - (adj. & pron.) other, another, else
astudio - (v.) study
athro [-awon, m.] - (n.) teacher
barn [-au, f.] - (n.) opinion
coeden [coed, f.] - (n.) tree; (pl.) woods
cyfnither [-oedd, f.] - (f.) female cousin
cyfforddus - (adj.) comfortable
Cymraeg [f.] - (n.) Welsh language
Cymru [f.] - (n.) Wales
cymydog [cymdogion, m.] - (n.) neighbor (neighbour)
dosbarth [-iadau, m.] - (n.) class
gogledd [m.] - (n. & adj.) north
nesa - (adj.) next
tad [-au, m.] - (n.) father
teg - (adj.) fair
[The answers can be found in a separate file.]
1. Translate the following sentences into English.
|a.||This sentence is already in English.|